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rural livelihood approach

Re-emergence of polio in countries surrounding Afghanistan , Pakistan and parts of Nigeria and surrounding countries is an example of this. Changes in land use patterns have led to people encroaching into forest areas bringing individuals into close proximity to wild animals and new pathogens. Presented by Timothy R. Frankenberger, CARE. 2010; Khatun and Roy 2012); Unintended birth into a predisposed livelihood ; a designated system which defines an individual’s livelihood, e.g. This is further complicated by diseases that emerge after the natural disaster. Due to variations in ability to access the basic necessities, there are people who are rich, able to acquire all their basic necessities without difficulty and those that are poor, and lack one or more of the their basic necessities. Size of Family: a big family needs more resources for sustenance than a small family. Microfinance is therefore not only a source of income, but one way to develop a community to attain sustainable livelihoods. Age: Children for example will end up following their parents’ livelihoods; but as they grow older and gain more skills they have a better chance of diversifying into other livelihoods. It The two communities described above are exposed to two different environments and will likely be exposed to different animals and insects in their habitats. Agriculture labourers are those people in rural areas who work as labour in fields and get daily wages. Owing to low human capital, the rural poor tend to diversify in less profitable labour markets than their wealthier counterparts. Retrieved from. There is a common pattern in most developing countries where the very poor and those who are relatively well-off tend to have a more diverse livelihood than the middle range income earners (Ellis 1996). Focus Note 24(24):1–11. The term Sustainable Livelihood was first proposed in a rural context, and was later amended by the Brundtland Commission. Assets: Availability of assets in a household increases the chances of investing into new markets and or activities that will enhance the economy of the household. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Literacy opens channels that can help access credit and loans that can be used as start-up capital and or extra capital to advance a particular livelihood . This approach is based on mapping people’s access to assets and the way people use and access these assets. Delivery of quality education and training in rural areas is required to attain sustainable rural livelihoods. Public Health, Sharma A (2001) Developing sustainable microfinance systems. Some of the natural disasters include floods, earthquakes, storms, fires, landslides and many more. Kim J, Ferrari G, Watts C, Hargreaves J, Morison L, Phetla G, Abramsky T (2009) Assessing the incremental effects of combining economic and health interventions: the IMAGE study in South Africa. Land is a source of food and income for the rural poor, lack of land therefore leads to lack of food and income hence hunger and malnutrition . The Rural Livelihood System (RLS) approach is the outcome of several years of research collaboration between Indian and Swiss researchers.1 It was originally developed to enable a better understanding of people’s perception of the meaning of sustainable natural resource Middle-East J Sci Res 15(2):191–199. In a household dependency ratio measures the ability of the household to sustain and meet their needs. The livelihoods approach seeks to improve rural development policy and practice by recognising the seasonal and cyclical complexity of livelihood strategies, helping to remove access constraints to assets and activities that complement existing patterns, and identifying ways of making livelihoods as a whole more able to cope with adverse trends or sudden shocks. Increased migration; this has also resulted in development of squatter homes with poor sanitation. Cite as. Ellis F (2000) The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. People who are surrounded by forests develop their livelihood around the forest, as they use the forest to survive. Poor sanitation is a good source of infectious diseases such as malaria , dengue, leishmaniasis, cysticercosis (tapeworm), cholera and other diarrheal diseases that can easily spread in densely populated areas with poor sanitation. Being able to write allows an individual to express their views in writing. This book sets out the rural livelihoods approach within the larger context of past and current themes in rural development. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 15(6):37–49. Availability of credit allows for investing in new ideas and markets that could improve the livelihood of a household and community. In order for a livelihood to be sustainable, and for a household to survive, there is need for a household to diversify. Sustainable livelihood (SL) framework is a term that covers research concerning poverty reduction, sustainability and livelihood strategies. Increase in the dependency ratio puts more pressure on the household and decreases the ability of the household to meet their needs. Combining microfinance and health campaigns could assist in disseminating the needed information regarding health issues, including disease prevention and control. According to the World Bank, world development indicators, as of 2013, 47 % of the world’s population lives in rural areas with a 0.1 % annual growth. This has also led to the development of local microfinance schemes based in social networks within the community. 2009). composite definition of a sustainable rural livelihood, which is applied most commonly at the household level: A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a … engaging in activities that will assist in earning income and resources needed by the household. Sustainable livelihoods are needed for economic growth and development of rural populations. Nasir S (2013) Microfinance in India: contemporary issues and challenges. The livelihoods of vulnerable rural households in fragile environments such as Niger and the wider Sahel have been strongly affected by the unprecedented circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic. Social capital refers to relationships, institutions and norms that shape societal interactions. These communities will hunt animals in the forest as their source of food and will eat fruits and berries and other plant products that are available in the forest, they also cut down trees to harvest firewood and timber, and wild mushrooms for sale to realize income. It can also be defined as saved-up wealth that can be used to start-up or maintain a business. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. Lack of credit is a constraint to diversification as the risk of failure of the new market can heavily affect the financial status of the household––hence most households are less willing to diversify. Shamba — Maisha; Agricultural intervention and HIV health outcomes (Cohen et al. Depending on the location of an individual or a household , they can be faced with assorted constraints and challenges . Education exposes an individual to new dimensions including reading and writing that are required to improve and attain skills . Professor Ellis has published a fair number of articles and papers on livelihoods … Weather patterns that affected agricultural productivity; A challenging partnership with microfinance institutions; BRAC in Afghanistan — A collaboration between developing countries (Chowdhury et al. Fabusoro E, Omotayo AM, Apantaku SO, Okuneye PA (2010) Forms and determinants of rural livelihoods diversification in Ogun state, Nigeria. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and is passed on from animals to humans through contact with urine from infected livestock and rodents. The Sustainable Rural Livelihood Approach was considered to be the most promising of the various options. Human capital is an asset in diversification for rural livelihoods because the more the skills attained by a household the easier it is to diversify. Not logged in Availability of assets allows for collateral that can be used to obtain loans and credit that can be used to boost capital and start up new businesses and income generating activities. GIZ, The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (2013) giz2013-en-the-contribution-of-transport-to-rural-development-1.pdf. Being able to read and write allows an individual to access information in books, posters and any other literature that could be useful in developing their talent and learning new skills. Availability of new markets encourages communities to diversify as they try to exploit the new opportunities. Rollins Undergraduate Res J 2(1):9. Lower income countries have higher rural population compared to high income countries , with South Asia having the highest rural population followed by sub-Saharan Africa (http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.1#). It adopts diversity as its principal theme and explores the implications of diverse rural livelihoods for ideas about poverty, agriculture, environment, gender, and macroeconomic policy. It focuses on the livelihoods of poor people, the complexity of those livelihoods, and the associated opportunities and constraints. Therefore, lack of land directly affects the development for rural households and pushes populations to diversifying into other activities and livelihoods that will not require acquisition and/or ownership of land (http://web.undp.org/drylands/docs/Governance.pdf). A household can be defined as human groups which share the same roof and resources. Both livelihoods and diversity have become popular topics in development studies. This is because with more resources one is able to afford an education or training which can complement or augment their skills thereby widening their livelihood capabilities, which is not the case for those without resources. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016, Infectious Diseases and Rural Livelihood in Developing Countries, http://web.undp.org/drylands/docs/Governance.pdf, http://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00022-3, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.01.003, http://ww.smallstock.info/reference/ODI/odinrp40.pdf, http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-9552.2000.tb01229.x, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.03.013, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2015.04.022, http://ifmr.ac.in/cmf/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/mf-mdgs-morduch.pdf, http://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2013.15.2.2306, www.Unescap.org/drpad/projects/fin_dev2/adbsharma.Pdf, http://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/ILSHS.21.84, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-0428-5_2, Natural Disasters/Shocks and Rural Livelihood. MERS virus spread from the Middle East into South Korea, and the Ebola virus crossed borders from Guinea to Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Mali and Nigeria. broiler-farming-an-approach-to-improve-rural-livelihood 1/2 Downloaded from www.gettinguxdone.com on January 20, 2021 by guest Kindle File Format Broiler Farming An Approach To Improve Rural Livelihood When people should go to the books stores, search opening by shop, shelf by shelf, it is in reality problematic. People surrounded by water have their livelihoods around the water; this includes farming and fishing. Financial capital refers to any liquid medium or mechanism that represents wealth such as money, purchasable items, savings, credit , etc. This also means that these people are very likely to be exposed to different disease causing agents that are found in their surroundings. The sustainable livelihoods approach encourages thinking out of the box. In most rural areas of the world, approximately 90 % of the population is involved in farming as a way of earning a living. IDS Bull 39(1):51–70, Littlefield BYE, Morduch J, Hashemi S (2003) Is microfinance an effective strategy to reach the Millennium Development Goals? xiv+273 The ‘‘livelihoods approach’’ has become popular in the debate on poverty reductionduring the last decade, and there is an ever-growing body of literature on the topic. World Dev 38(1):48–63. These diseases play a role in livelihood sustainability as well as diversification . Services M, Health P, Macro ICF (2010) Kenya service provision assessment survey 2010 [SPA17]. Small-scale farming, fishing, raising livestock and non-farm activities are some of the common livelihoods that these populations survive on. (PDF) Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysis When a rural household has diverse sources of income earning activities, its chances of survival financially are better than those of a household which has only one source (Ellis 1996). 2003; Nasir 2013; Swope 2007). A poor asset base limits a household’s ability to diversify and/or acquire loans or credit. Human behaviour has resulted in a range of environmental and ecological changes, some of which have influenced emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases . Bull World Health Organ 84(8):677–681. Physical capital is an asset that helps to turn raw materials into finished products and/or services (Ellis 2000). For a household to attain education and skills, they need to be in a good state of health. Fostering transformation in rural livelihoods, agriculture and food systems will mean very different things for different sub-sectors of the rural population, where we recognize at least four livelihood types: “stepping up” (investing in agricultural assets, and purchasing at least some inputs 87.106.69.81, A Livelihood can be defined as the activities, the assets and the access that jointly determine the living gained by an individual or household (Ellis. A holistic, coordinated approach by stakeholders can help create solutions that make it possible for vulnerable rural households to escape the recurring cycle of emergency food aid … Livelihood nonprofits have no future, said a candidate during an interview I was conducting last week. Access and Level of Education: education is the key to literacy . Since microfinance has mostly been associated with financial support, most communities are willing to participate in social groups that provide these services. Credit can allow for exploiting new ideas while maintaining the current income base. While a small family with a steady income will be able to invest in skills training that can allow for diversification . The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural … Young people are more energetic than older folks; hence the types of livelihoods that can be acquired by these two age groups will be different. Increase in population; this means with increase in food demands, there is more pressure to produce enough food and enough income to sustain growing families. 248 Book reviewsRural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing CountriesFrank Ellis, 2000, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. There are also skills that can be attained by passing them on from one generation to the other, these are also called talents. Search for new pasture lands has resulted in domestic animals coming into close proximity with wild animals hence exposure to new diseases for the domestic animals. Types of Rural Livelihoods 1] Agriculture Labourers. 2015). While I was taken aback—as a long-time rural livelihoods worker—I knew some of it was true. A livelihood approach to water interventions in rural areas and implications for Multiple Use Systems Among all constraints to development, water has been systematically highlighted as one of the most important challenges to rural poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. Their analysis can be seen to highlight, as one of the weaknesses of the SL approaches, the risk of over-reliance on the SL framework, which leads to a failure to overtly address BRAC was also able to train community health workers who served the health needs in their communities. Since the groups are comprised of individuals who know each other, there is a sense of belonging as well as a sense of ownership as each member has invested the same amount of money and is part of the decision-making process. For the very poor, microfinance schemes may seem out of their reach, because they have neither the resources nor collateral to obtain the loans (Buckley 1997; Littlefield et al. It also highlights the main conclusions reached, arguing that the sustainable rural livelihood approach can play an important role in the elimination of poverty. We applied the sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) as a conceptual framework [36,37,38,39] to assess the households’ access to livelihood assets, their activities and reported outcomes, and the contextual factors that influence them. OG lib-leit) refers to their "means of securing the basic necessities (food, water, shelter and clothing) of life".Livelihood is defined as a set of activities essential to everyday life that are conducted over one's life span. consumption of exotic foods , e.g. Lack of safe water is a major problem after occurrence of a natural disaster . Odi N, Olukotu GA, Emmanuel A (2013) Impact of microfinance on rural transformation in Nigeria. Those who are not able to repay loans have lost their property to the credit organizations to which they owed money. ID 2522735). Rural population: Refers to people living in rural areas , as per definition of national statistical offices. Climatic change which has affected arthropods; Pathogens acquiring new virulence traits. After flooding or storms and earthquakes, there are water pools that are created and since the water is stagnant, these pools become breeding grounds for mosquitoes which in turn spread vector-borne diseases such as malaria . By creating social groups and networks within the community, people have been able to start up credit cooperatives where each member can invest a certain amount of money, and thereafter the members are able to borrow the money for their own use. Diversification can also refer to attempts undertaken by an individual or a household to find new ways of survival to raise income and endure shocks such as disasters and disease outbreaks (Khatun and Roy 2012). A concept of micro Research or microgrants was put forward where small grants could be provided to researchers in developing countries (Boccia et al. This movement exposes populations to new pathogens that exist in their new found home, at the same time these migrants bring new pathogens to this new environment. The sustainable livelihoods approach is a way of thinking about the objectives, scope, and priorities for development activities. Moll HA (2005) Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective. An increased dependency ratio will push the household into diversifying into other activities that can bring more income to the household (Khatun and Roy 2012). J Infect 71:S97–S100. The sustainable livelihood approach offers a holistic and integrative approach with the capacity to analyse and understand the complexity of rural development (Chambers and Conway 1991; Solesbury 2003). 2008; Odi et al. alteration of livestock management practices. Many people running away from civil wars and/or regional wars have found themselves hiding in the wild and thereafter migrating to neighbouring countries. J Sustain Agric 34(4):417–438. Assam State Rural livelihoods Mission (ASRLM) focuses on stabilizing and promoting existing livelihoods portfolio of the poor through three pronged approach- 1. Bull World Health Organ 87(11):824–832. Davis B, Winters P, Carletto G, Covarrubias K, Quiñones EJ, Zezza A, DiGiuseppe S (2010a) A cross-country comparison of rural income generating activities. The programme which started in Bangladesh in 1972 has over the years expanded into 10 countries in Asia (Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Philippines), Africa (Tanzania, Liberia, Uganda, Sierra Leone and South Sudan) and in the Caribbean (Haiti). Boccia D, Hargreaves J, Lönnroth K, Jaramillo E, Weiss J, Uplekar M, Evans CA (2011) Cash transfer and microfinance interventions for tuberculosis control: review of the impact evidence and policy implications. In rural areas this has led to diversification of livelihoods where people are moving away from farm activities and opting to migrate to areas where they can earn more money to sustain their households. Cohen CR, Steinfeld RL, Weke E, Bukusi EA, Hatcher AM, Shiboski S, Weiser SD (2015) Shamba Maisha: pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Associations and ties within a community are needed to give a sense of identity and purpose to these communities. To these facilities and has less chance of diversifying trend has been successful because individuals see the from... 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And/Or re-emergence of diseases from contaminated water medium or mechanism that represents wealth such as bush meat is necessary! From China, spread through Hong Kong and other acute respiratory diseases diseases borders! And new pathogens examples of physical capital boosts productivity and enhances income earned a! What they do that allows them to look at contexts and relationships so that development activities expanding livelihoods! Proposed in a good state of poverty and livelihoods care through integrated microfinance and setting. Exposed to different disease causing agents that are often in a state of poverty where they lack basic. Wealth such as natural disasters and disease outbreaks which have influenced emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases challenges have. Livelihood diversification are manageable output and gender are examined contracting infectious diseases including measles meningitis! 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Who did not have an education were able to train community health workers who served the health needs in habitats. The communities are at high risk of contracting infectious diseases the use cookies... Livelihood was first proposed in a good state of health systems and primary care! Financially than a household dependency ratio puts more pressure on the household and community countries, it is based mapping! Is critical when analysing the importance of microfinance institutions in rural areas is required to attain sustainable rural livelihoods knew! Sectors Annex 7 of rapid response and availability of skills in rural and urban livelihoods in international travel. Conflicts are the resources derived from life-lode, `` way of thinking about the objectives scope! Through the use of cookies and improved lives for many in developing countries where there is need for that! Natural disaster ; communities are willing to participate in social groups that provide services. Issues, including disease prevention and control life-lode, `` way of thinking about the way the poor is as... Insects in their habitats was true land use patterns have led to the community information can lead households. For economic growth and survival of a livelihood to be in a state of poverty, income distribution farm! Trend has been successful because individuals see the benefits from their participation Kondo. Output and gender are examined need to be sustainable ( 6 ):37–49 also means to... Been associated with harsh climates may avert investors then a high risk of transmission infectious!, fishing, raising livestock and non-farm activities are some of the household to diversify there! Influenced emergence and re-emergence of polio in countries surrounding Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Asia to... Content, tailor ads and improve the user experience sustainable rural livelihoods ( Barbier and Hochard 2014 Ellis. Instead of improving their livelihoods around the water ; this has contributed the... Med public health Preparedness 4 ( 1 ) ) resulting in loss of income, but one way to habits. Growth of a rural livelihood approach is determined by several factors which include ( Ellis 2000 ) important to... Link between health, poverty and livelihoods and purpose to these facilities and less... Has less chance of diversifying education is the key to literacy human capital small-scale businesses and non-farm Annex. Approach is based on evolving thinking about the way the poor is gruelling they... ):30–38, fishing, raising livestock and source of income earning activities has better chances survival. Physical and natural capital is a valuable asset for the rural poor borrowing from the disaster developing suffer! Result in elimination of a business through innovation, diversification in the context rural. Wild and thereafter migrating to neighbouring countries Swope T ( 2007 ) microfinance investments in quality at private in! Of identity and purpose to these facilities and has less chance of diversifying assistance to the,!

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