Accessed 10 Apr 2016. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Popul Health Metr. Terms and Conditions, Why do women not deliver in health facilities: a qualitative study of the community perspectives in south central Ethiopia? Getachew A, Ricca J, Cantor D, Rawlins B, Rosen H, Tekleberhan A, Bartlett L, Gibson H. Quality of care for prevention and management of common maternal and newborn complications: a study of Ethiopia’s hospitals. As part of the Health Sector Transformation Plan (HSTP), Ethiopia aspires to reduce MMR to 177 death per 100,000 LB in 2020 . Thaddeus S, Maine D. Too far to walk: maternal mortality in context. Katz J, West Jr KP, Khatry SK, Christian P, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, Shrestha SR. Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal. Diarrhoea is a leading killer of children, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of all deaths among children under age 5 worldwide in 2017. 2010;375(9730):2024–31. The U.S. government’s support has positioned Ethiopia for malaria elimination in more than 230 districts nationally. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death for people living with HIV. Ethiopia: Democide, the leading cause of death by the Totalitarian government in Ethiopia continues . The higher points on the chart indicate that declines in mortality rates were faster in those age groups between 1990 and 2010. Popul Health Metr. CAS Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. New York: United Nations; 2015. Worku AG, Yalew AW, Afework MF. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. In this regard, several studies reported limited utilization of key maternal health services in Ethiopia [21,22,23,24]. Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Kassebaum NJ, Lopez AD, Murray CJL, Lozano R. A comparison of maternal mortality estimates from GBD 2013 and WHO. Measuring maternal mortality is difficult in low-income countries because of limited registration of births and deaths . In 2004, the disease has been reported as the first cause of illness and death accounting for Kassebaum NJ, Steiner C, Murray CJL, et al. The annual rate of decline by -1.6% (95% UI: -2.8 to -0.3) was far lower than the targeted annual decline (5.5%) to achieve the MDG five goal. Ethiop Med J. While malnutrition is the leading cause of the high mortality, suspected measles is compounding the problem. The maternal mortality ratio in developing countries in 2015 is 239 per 100 000 live births versus 12 per 100 … Secondly, as indicated in the large gaps in the 95% uncertainty intervals, the estimate was made on relatively smaller sample size. This includes over 153,000 newborns. Article In response to delay two, along with other strategies, the Ethiopian government introduced an innovative free ambulance services in providing ambulances in every rural district that can serve the communities on 24–hours, 7–days basis to transfer any woman in labour or experiencing other obstetric difficulties to the appropriate health facility . CSA [Ethiopia]. These findings call for better-integrated newborn and child survival interventions focusing on the main risk factors. Baltimore: Jhpiego; 2011. Most of the previous studies in Ethiopia were based on a single data sources, or sub-national study, or without identifying the causes of maternal mortality [6,7,8, 10, 38]. Health Sector Development Programme IV (2010/11 - 2014/15). J Glob Health. All authors assisted the design, assisted the data interpretation and critically reviewed the manuscript. CSA [Ethiopia] and ORC Macro. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2005. Furthermore, the national HIV prevalence has shown a decline in the general population including pregnant women . 2011;115(1):101–5. Accessed 11 June 2016. On average, Ethiopian children suffer from four to eight infections each year. Addis Ababa October 15/2018 Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Ethiopia, a microbiologist from Mekele University said. This framework aims to guide African countries on how to implement the Global Technical Strategy for malaria in the Region. CDC is not responsible for Section 508 compliance (accessibility) on other federal or private website. Article BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. Additionally, obesity rates are rising, especially in children, where the rate has grown more than 50% since 2001. This means that the number of deaths has fallen by 1.6% compared to the previous year. Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. As reported by other previous studies [5, 54], a higher number of deaths occurred during postpartum period over the study period. This infection accounts for 10 percent of deaths each year. The totalitarian government of Ethiopia, led by the TPLF/EPRDF from its inception in 1991, has systematically eliminated citizens it suspects of being opponents. BMC Res Notes. Reprod Health. Alam N, Townend J. Firstly, as there was no vital registration system in Ethiopia, the modelling was based on limited sources of data, which may influence the results. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. While there has been a reduction in the MMR in Ethiopia over the last 23 years, the annual rate of reduction is far lower than targets set. Cookies policy. [www.afro.who.int/en/ethiopia/country-programmes/topics/4479-maternal-death-surveillance-andresponse.html] In: WHO Regional Office for Africa. Spatio-temporal Gaussian Process Regression (ST-GPR) was applied to generate best estimates of maternal mortality with 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UI). Yet, maternal mortality remains the global challenge with 275,288 deaths occurring due to pregnancy and complications in 2015 . [http://phe-ethiopia.org/admin/uploads/attachment-721-HSDP%20IV%20Final%20Draft%2011Octoberr%202010.pdf]. Cancer was the leading cause of death among whites in the county, accounting for one-quarter (25.3%) of all deaths in this group. Another 60 countries fell in the very low mortality strata, responsible for 2% of the global under-5 deaths. 2). CDC supports Ethiopia’s efforts to reach HIV epidemic control by improving active case-finding, linkage to treatment, viral load testing, and adherence and retention of existing clients on antiretroviral therapy. Int J Equity Health. So COVID-19 could soon become the leading cause of death, he said. Globally, it is the second leading cause of death in children < 5 years-old (around 525,000 deaths annually) and leading cause of malnutrition   . HIV is a leading cause of death and a health threat to millions worldwide. Renewed focus will be given to scaling-up TB preventive therapy, with the goal of reaching 90% coverage and completion rates among people living with HIV who are enrolled in care. In the GBD study, the CODEm model was employed to group the covariate and enable computation. In this regard, the EDHS 2016 report pointed to high rates of maternal mortality in these specific age categories . Ethiopia is particularly vulnerable to the effects of zoonotic diseases, especially anthrax, brucellosis, and rabies. The differences in the present finding and the previous reviews is likely to be due to the inclusion of hospital-based studies. Thirdly, while it was possible to see the mortality differences across different age groups, the present estimate could not show the MMR in terms of other women’s sociodemographic status such as urban-rural residence, wealth and educational status. Principal Causes of Death Ischaemic heart diseases remains as the principal causes of death In 2017, the per cent of deaths caused by €Ischaemic heart diseases was 13.9 per cent, followed by Pneumonia (12.7%), Cerebrovascular diseases (7.1%), Transport accidents (4.6%) and Malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus and lung (2.3%). Trends in Maternal Healthin Ethiopia: Challenges in achieving the MDG for maternal mortalityIndepth Analysisof the EDHS 2000-2011. Trend of HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending Antenatal Care Unit of Bishoftu Hospital, Ethiopia. More than half of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one third occur in South Asia. Mirkuzie AH, Sisay MM, Reta AT, Bedane MM. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4071-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4071-8. Since 2006, CDC has worked with the ministry of health to establish TB/HIV programs, now in almost 1,000 health facilities. The causes of maternal mortality are multifactorial. Berhan Y, Berhan A. Cite this article. More than a third of newborn deaths are due to preterm birth complications, which is the leading cause of death. Number of deaths has fallen by 1.6% in 2019. PLoS One. CDC provides technical expertise to meet national immunization goals and international resolutions to eradicate polio, eliminate measles, and strengthen the national immunization program in Ethiopia. This finding shows that Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) in Ethiopia was still high in the study period. This reduction may have resulted from the introduction of the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV/AIDS services since 2001 . Addis Ababa and Calverton: CSA [Ethiopia] and ORC Macro; 2006. Back in 2000, Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of death and it remains the top killed today, accounting for 8.9 million deaths in 2019 or 16 percent of total deaths worldwide. Pneumonia is the most serious outcome of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and kills more children than any other infectious disease, claiming the lives of over 800,000 children under five every year, or around 2,200 every day. PubMed United Nations. Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV. There was a minimal but insignificant change of MMR over the last 23 years. statement and 2013;12:30. Across all Dollo Ado sites we have seen 150 cases of suspected measles and 11 related deaths. ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY RATE This chart shows the decline in mortality rate at every age range. CDC provides expertise and support across the 11 technical areas known as GHSA action packages. Maternal health services are provided at all three level of the Ethiopian health system . The mortality rate rose "significantly" for a third month, to 374.4 deaths per 100,000 people in Wales. In older children, the leading cause of death in 2013 was diarrheal diseases, and in adolescents, the leading cause of death was road injuries, the report said. Sources: Article BMC Med. In dealing with the first delay, the government established Health Development Army (HDA) in 2010 with the aim of expanding the achievements of the Health Extension Programme (HEP) deeper into communities, improving community ownership and scaling up best practices . This study found that maternal mortality in Ethiopia over the period 1990–2013 was considerably high and remained above the Millennium Development target goal set in 2000. Similarly, in Ethiopia, maternal mortality is still very high. CSA [Ethiopia] and ORC Macro. Maternal Death Surveillance and Response Ethiopia. NCDs are the leading cause of premature death and disability in Ethiopia accounts for about 42% of deaths, of which 27% are premature deaths before 70 years of age. The finding based on the GBD data was higher than that estimated by WHO  (353 per 100,000LB), and reports in Northern Ethiopia  (266 per 100 000 LB), Southwest Ethiopia (425 per 100,000LB) ; however, it was lower than that reported by the EDHS 2016 report (412 per 100,000) , and a study from Southern Ethiopia  (1667 per 100,000 LB). CDC also supports the Ethiopia Public Health Institute to strengthen disease detection and response functions and to implement an integrated strategic plan for the nation’s laboratories. Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2014. Thank you. Focus areas include improving quality of TB/HIV screening and treatment services, laboratory services, and surveillance systems. 2015;12 Suppl 1:S6. Population Reference Bureau 2018, Ethiopia, Ethiopia Factsheet (For Print) pdf icon[PDF – 3 MB], Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 4 . Analysis of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service utilization in Ethiopia: 2006-2010. Molla M, Mitiku I, Worku A, Yamin A. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. Privacy The authors declare that they have no competing interests. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method. This finding likely reflects the high fertility rate in these age groups of women and thus the potential of increased maternal mortality . Over the different time periods since 1990, the highest rate of maternal mortality as measured through MMR occurred in the age group 20 and 39 years. Another study from Northwest Ethiopia also reported the lack of basic signal functions necessary for routine and emergency maternity care services . In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. Accessed 7 Mar 2016. Google Scholar. STATISTICS ON CAUSES OF DEATH, MALAYSIA, 2018 i. Pneumonia was the cause of death of one-in-seven of them. Mirkuzie AH, Sisay MM, Reta AT, Bedane MM. Federal HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office. In this respect, the roles of Health Extension Workers (HEW) and Women’s Developmental Army (WDA) were vital in terms of organising women’s use of skilled birth attendance by arranging ambulance services and timely referral of labouring mothers to health facilities . 2014;14:161. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2016;11(3):e0150747. NCDs are the leading cause of premature death and disability in Ethiopia accounts for about 42% of deaths, of which 27% are premature deaths before 70 years of age. CSA [Ethiopia] and ICF International. The leading cause of maternal death that contributed more than three quarter of deaths in Ethiopia in 2013 was other direct maternal causes such as complications of anaesthesia, embolism (air, amniotic fluid, and blood clot), and the condition of peripartum cardiomyopathy (25.7%) followed by complications of abortions (19.6%), maternal haemorrhage (12.2%), hypertensive disorders (10.3%), and maternal sepsis and other maternal infections such as influenza, malaria, tuberculosis, and hepatitis (9.6%). PubMed Central 2015;5(1):010404. Maternal health has become one of the major public health concerns for developing countries following the first safe motherhood conference held in Kenya in 1987 . A Price too high to bear: the costs of maternal mortality to families and communities. Gaym A. Maternal mortality studies in Ethiopia--magnitude, causes and trends. CDC provides technical and programmatic expertise to meet national immunization goals and international resolutions to eradicate polio, eliminate measles, and strengthen the national routine immunization program in Ethiopia. The second reason could be due to lack of quality obstetric services at health facilities for women attending facility delivery. Malaria is a leading cause of death and disease in many countries, instead young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. Current evidence on basic emergency obstetric and newborn care services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; a cross sectional study. 2016;133(3):316–9. BMC Public Health 17, 160 (2017). About 25% of Croatian citizens smoke tobacco every day, higher than the EU average. 2013;10:43. In the study, nine covariates that included age-specific fertility rate, total fertility rate, age-standardised HIV death rate for female individuals aged 15–49 years, neonatal death rate, lag-distributed gross domestic product (GDP) per person, proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities, proportion of deliveries attended by skilled birth attendants, coverage of four antenatal care visits, and malnutrition in children younger than 5 years (proxy for adult nutritional status) were undertaken based on their potential associations with maternal mortality . 5). Introduction. Austin A, Gulema H, Belizan M, Colaci DS, Kendall T, Tebeka M, Hailemariam M, Bekele D, Tadesse L, Berhane Y, et al. 21 August 2016, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – Today, all forty-seven WHO Member States in the African Region adopted unanimously a new malaria framework for Africa. As of September 2018, more than 466,604 men, women, and children were receiving life-saving antiretroviral treatment (ART). The differences between the present findings and the EDHS 2016 report could be likely due to the time differences although the later report relied on small number of events (maternal deaths) occurred in 7- years preceding the survey . The major and direct causes of newborn deaths are; infection 36%, intra-partum related complications (birth asphyxia) 25%, and prematurity 17% (CBNC Implementation Guideline, FMoH 2013). Over the last 23 years, maternal mortality occurred among the young adolescent girls 10–14 age group (Fig. 2014;7:556. Roro MA, Hassen EM, Lemma AM, Gebreyesus SH, Afework MF. Matern Child Health J. Assessing coverage, equity and quality gaps in maternal and neonatal care in sub-saharan Africa: an integrated approach. Recently, the burden of these diseases is rising rapidly among populations in the low-income countries. Understanding maternal mortality from top-down and bottom-up perspectives: Case of Tigray Region. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Since 2006, CDC has worked with the ministry of health to establish TB/HIV programs, now in almost 1,000 health facilities. It becomes difficult as maternal mortality is relatively a rare event besides the challenge in avoiding the technical problems related to bias and the high demand of cost to carrying out sufficiently large surveys to measure the rate per unit time or per birth with reasonable precision [36, 37]. Multilevel modeling of Ethiopian National Demographic and Health Survey data. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. Worku AG, Yalew AW, Afework MF. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading HIV-associated opportunistic infection in low- and middle- income countries, and it is a leading cause of death globally among people living with HIV. 1994;38(8):1091–110. Mixed effects linear regression and Spatio-temporal Gaussian Process Regression (ST-GPR) were applied while predicting the mortality rate and mortality fractions . Addis Ababa; CSA [Ethiopia]; 2014. Google Scholar. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. In countries like Ethiopia where there is No access to safe abortion, improvement of the available post-abortion care services is an important strategy.
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